U.K. Authorizes Covid-19 Vaccine Made by AstraZeneca, Oxford

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U.K. Authorizes Covid-19 Vaccine Made by AstraZeneca, Oxford

Researchers at work on the Covid-19 vaccine in a laboratory in Oxford, England.

Photo: John Cairns/Associated Press

LONDON—The U.K. authorized a Covid-19 vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca PLC, opening the door for the rollout of millions of doses in a country where infections have surged amid a more infectious variant of the virus.

The green light represents the third emergency-use approval of a Western-developed vaccine this month and comes as cases rise sharply in the U.S. and Europe. A shot developed by Pfizer Inc. and Germany’s BioNTech SE and one by Moderna Inc. have both been cleared in the U.S. and are being distributed there.

AstraZeneca’s shot—less effective in clinical trials than its rivals’ injections—won’t be available in the U.S. until the Food and Drug Administration reviews large-scale trials still being conducted there and decides to authorize its use.

The U.K. authorization comes as the country battles a new, potentially more contagious variant of the coronavirus. The mutated virus triggered travel bans recently on visitors and goods from Britain, ratcheting up the political urgency for a speedy vaccine rollout here. Pfizer’s shot is already available in the U.K., where Prime Minister Boris Johnson said on Dec. 21 that a half million of the first of a two-dose regimen have been administered.

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Dose Destinations

The Covid-19 vaccine developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca is being counted on to help expand inoculations in the developing world.

Countries with advance commitments for the vaccine

(2.7 billion doses worldwide)

Countries with advance commitments for the vaccine

(2.7 billion doses worldwide)

Countries with advance commitments for the vaccine

(2.7 billion doses worldwide)

Countries with advance commitments for the vaccine

(2.7 billion doses worldwide)

Scientists have said that the three Covid-19 vaccines authorized by Western countries so far should be similarly effective against the new British variant as they have been in clinical trials, a view AstraZeneca executives share, according to a person familiar with the matter. The new variant could be as much as 70% more transmissible than more established forms of Covid-19, government officials say.

AstraZeneca and U.K. health officials said the two-dose regimen is flexible in terms of when the second dose should be given, anywhere from four weeks to 12 weeks after the first dose.

Delaying the second dose would help stretch supplies of the vaccine so more Britons get a first shot sooner. But the vaccine’s full protection—benefits shown in clinical trials to prevent hospitalization—only kicks in after the second dose.

As drugmakers distribute Covid-19 vaccines, cybersecurity experts are warning against the growing threat of tampering and theft by organized crime networks. WSJ explains how hackers are targeting the vaccine rollout during the pandemic. Illustration: George Downs

U.K. health officials said Wednesday the updated second-dose guidance also applies to the Pfizer-BioNTech shot already being administered in the country. Previously, the second dose was recommended 21 days after the second dose. U.K. officials on Wednesday changed that to “within 12 weeks,” saying the change was based on the latest scientific advice. The vaccine’s makers have said full protection doesn’t start until at least seven days after the second dose.

Pfizer has promised the U.K. millions more doses by the end of the year, but the AstraZeneca and Oxford shot—made at facilities in the country and elsewhere—promises to quicken the rate of inoculations by the country’s state-run health-care system. The National Health Service will determine which shot to provide people depending on supply.

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How Viral Vector Vaccines Work

AstraZeneca’s new vaccine relies on a different mechanism for conferring immunity than traditional vaccines.

Traditional Vaccines

1. In classic vaccines, such as those against measles and polio, the patient is inoculated with weakened or inactivated versions of the virus. This triggers the immune system to produce specialized antibodies that are adapted to recognize the virus

2. After vaccination, the antibodies remain in the body. If the patient later becomes infected with the actual virus, the antibodies can identify and help neutralize it.

Weakened virus vaccine

Actual viral infection

antibodies

New Vaccine

Scientists have isolated genes in the new coronavirus responsible for producing these spike proteins. The genes are spliced into weakened, harmless versions of other viruses.

Instead of using the whole virus to generate an immune response, the vaccine relies on coronavirus’s outer spike proteins, which are what antibodies use to recognize the virus.

Weakened virus with

spike protein genes

Spike

proteins

When injected into a patient, the genetically engineered viruses enter healthy cells where they produce coronavirus spike proteins.

Once exported from the cells, the spike proteins prompt the immune system to mount a defense, just as with traditional vaccines.

Spike protein

Vaccine-generated antibody response

1. In classic vaccines, such as those against measles and polio, the patient is inoculated with weakened or inactivated versions of the virus. This triggers the immune system to produce specialized antibodies that are adapted to recognize the virus

2. After vaccination, the antibodies remain in the body. If the patient later becomes infected with the actual virus, the antibodies can identify and help neutralize it.

Weakened virus vaccine

Actual viral infection

antibodies

New Vaccine

Scientists have isolated genes in the new coronavirus responsible for producing these spike proteins. The genes are spliced into weakened, harmless versions of other viruses.

Instead of using the whole virus to generate an immune response, the vaccine relies on coronavirus’s outer spike proteins, which are what antibodies use to recognize the virus.

Weakened virus with

spike protein genes

Spike

proteins

When injected into a patient, the genetically engineered viruses enter healthy cells where they produce coronavirus spike proteins.

Once exported from the cells, the spike proteins prompt the immune system to mount a defense, just as with traditional vaccines.

Spike protein

Vaccine-generated antibody response

1. In classic vaccines, such as those against measles and polio, the patient is inoculated with weakened or inactivated versions of the virus. This triggers the immune system to produce specialized antibodies that are adapted to recognize the virus

2. After vaccination, the antibodies remain in the body. If the patient later becomes infected with the actual virus, the antibodies can identify and help neutralize it.

Weakened virus vaccine

Actual viral infection

antibodies

New Vaccine

Scientists have isolated genes in the new coronavirus responsible for producing these spike proteins. The genes are spliced into weakened, harmless versions of other viruses.

Instead of using the whole virus to generate an immune response, the vaccine relies on coronavirus’s outer spike proteins, which are what antibodies use to recognize the virus.

Weakened virus with

spike protein genes

Spike

proteins

When injected into a patient, the genetically engineered viruses enter healthy cells where they produce coronavirus spike proteins.

Once exported from the cells, the spike proteins prompt the immune system to mount a defense, just as with traditional vaccines.

Spike protein

Vaccine-generated antibody response

1. In classic vaccines, such as those against measles and polio, the patient is inoculated with weakened or inactivated versions of the virus. This triggers the immune system to produce specialized antibodies that are adapted to recognize the virus

Weakened virus vaccine

antibodies

Actual viral infection

2. After vaccination, the antibodies remain in the body. If the patient later becomes infected with the actual virus, the antibodies can identify and help neutralize it.

New Vaccine

Instead of using the whole virus to generate an immune response, the vaccine relies on coronavirus’s outer spike proteins, which are what antibodies use to recognize the virus.

Spike proteins

Scientists have isolated genes in the new coronavirus responsible for producing these

spike proteins. The genes are spliced into weakened, harmless versions of other viruses.

Weakened virus with

spike protein genes

When injected into a patient, the genetically engineered viruses enter healthy cells where they produce coronavirus spike proteins.

Spike protein

Once exported from the cells, the spike proteins prompt the immune system to mount a defense, just as with traditional vaccines.

Vaccine-generated antibody response

In clinical trials, the AstraZeneca vaccine proved to be significantly less effective in preventing symptomatic Covid-19 than the vaccines by Pfizer and Moderna. But it still exceeded a key hurdle of 50% efficacy set earlier this year by regulators including the FDA, established as a benchmark for emergency authorization to prevent hospitalizations and deaths.

AstraZeneca said Wednesday it will supply millions of doses in the first quarter of next year, without specifying an exact number. The U.K. has ordered up to 100 million doses of the vaccine, enough for 50 million people.

The company said the vaccine will be used for adults 18 years and older. It didn’t provide any further guidance on the age of recipients or dosing size.

The vaccine provided between 62% and 90% effectiveness against symptomatic Covid-19, depending on dosage size. Two full doses about a month apart led to the 62% reading, while a small subset of trial volunteers who received a lower initial dose followed by a second standard dose showed a 90% efficacy reading. That subset of trial participants were all 55 years or younger. Oxford and AstraZeneca scientists have said they are unsure why that regimen would be more effective.

The partners previously said they were deferring to regulators to analyze the combined clinical-trial results and recommend dosage levels based on the data. The U.K.’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency is expected soon to provide detailed recommendations about the vaccine’s use.

It is unclear how quickly other nations might authorize the vaccine. A large clinical trial is under way in the U.S., where AstraZeneca executives expect to have full trial data to submit to U.S. regulators by February, according to a person familiar with the matter. They have been submitting batches of data to European regulators and are poised for potential authorization across the European Union by February, the person said.

Oxford and AstraZeneca emerged early this year as front-runners in the race to develop a Covid-19 vaccine before falling behind competitors that were able to complete clinical trials faster. Developed by scientists at Oxford’s Jenner Institute, the vaccine uses a weakened cold virus to courier genetic material from the coronavirus into cells and trigger immunity with two shots spaced one month apart.

AstraZeneca agreed in April to co-develop Oxford’s technology and distribute it around the world at no profit through the pandemic. By November, the company had agreements to supply three billion doses to every region in the world.

More on Vaccines

The partners have faced setbacks along the way to Wednesday’s milestone. In May, they launched a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical trial in the U.K. aimed at enrolling more than 10,000 volunteers and obtaining initial results by August. But the study progressed slower than hoped for initially, partly because of relatively low infection rates in the U.K. for much of the summer and fall.

By the time AstraZeneca launched a planned Phase 3 U.S. study of 30,000 volunteers in late August, the company was trailing behind rivals Pfizer and Moderna, which had begun similarly sized studies a month earlier. Within two weeks, AstraZeneca paused all its studies globally after a U.K. volunteer had an unexplained illness. U.K. regulators allowed studies to resume quickly, but the U.S. trial remained grounded for more than six weeks before U.S. regulators lifted the hold in October.

Write to Joseph Walker at joseph.walker@wsj.com and Jenny Strasburg at jenny.strasburg@wsj.com

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